The earth system. by Lee R Kump; James F Kasting; Robert G Crane. Print book: Document Computer File. English. Pearson new international edition. Earth System, The, 3rd Edition. Lee R. Kump, Pennsylvania State University. James F. Kasting, Pennsylvania State University. Robert G. Crane, Pennsylvania. Pearson Education. 3rd edition. Softcover. New. Table of Content ""1. Global Change 2. Daisyworld: An Introduction to Systems 3. Global Energy Balance: The.


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These environmental changes are mostly occurring due to the anthropogenic activities on the Earth. Human populations have expanded in numbers and in their technological and tasking abilities to the point at which we are now exerting a significant influence on our planet.

The greenhouse effect is an indisputably real, natural process that keeps the surfaces of Earth and the other terrestrial the earth system 3rd edition warmer than they would be in the absence of an atmosphere.

These activities release gases that bolster the greenhouse effect.

Comment 0 Step 3 of 11 The possible consequences of global warming are not only the temperature changes but also the sea level rises.

A change in temperature might cause other changes as well.

The Earth System by Kump, Lee R ; Kasting, James F ; Crane, Robert G

A rise in sea level is one frequently mentioned concern Sea level has already risen by at least 10cm over the past century. The likely cause is thermal expansion of a gradually warming ocean; like most forms of water, water expands when it is heated.

Increase in the sea level on the order of several meters is possible within the earth system 3rd edition next few centuries, and even larger changes are possible within the very long term.


Such changes could have serious consequences for people in coastal areas and would be catastrophic for those in small island states. Comment 0 Step 4 of 11 Global warming is not the only global environmental problem that caught the attention of the public.

Earth System, The, 3rd Edition

Since at leastthe potential depletion of stratospheric ozone has also been in the news. The layer was in between the troposphere and the mesosphere. Ultraviolet radiation causes skin cancer and other health problems in humans.

It adversely affects other organisms as well-notably, microscopic algae that are the base of the food chain in aquatic environments. Comment 0 Step 6 of 11 The year was a key one in stratospheric ozone research, because it marked the discovery of the ozone hole above the Antarctica.

Each year since aboutthe earth system 3rd edition ozone levels near the South Pole have fallen by large amounts during October, which is springtime in the Southern Hemisphere.

During the rest of the year, ozone levels in this region have remained close to normal throughout this time period.

Comment 0 Step 7 of 11 As soon as the ozone hole was discovered, atmospheric scientists guessed that chlorine compounds were to blame.

Byscientists had confirmed that chlorine is capable of destroying stratospheric ozone, and stratospheric chlorine levels have been increasing for the past few decades. Scientists are now fairly certain that the ozone hole is caused by chlorine compounds released from the breakdown of the anthropogenic CFCs.

The definitive evidence was provided inwhen a NASA research plane flew directly into the hole. Comment 0 Step 8 of 11 A substantial portion of the human population switched from being hunters and gatherers to the earth system 3rd edition farmers some 10,years ago, humans have been altering the land surface.

The more of these changes have tended to reduce the complexity of the landscape, such as when forested areas have been cleared and replaced with a single crop species. New species may replace them, but normally the number of species decreases; that is biodiversity is reduced. When a species is unable to move away or adapt, the change in land use can result in extinction of the species.

The largest and potentially the most significant species loss occurring today are taking place in the tropical rain forests. These warm, moist forests are centered on the equator. Comment 0 Step 9 of 11 The concerns about the loss of tropical species are, in some ways, less immediate than the concerns about ozone depletion or global warming.

One worry is that the tropical plants are a potential source of medicines for fighting cancer and other diseases. This concern is valid, but it does not have the urgency of the prospect of instantaneous sunburn on exposure to the Sun or of entire states or even nations being submerged by a rising sea level.