When working with statistics, it's important to recognize the different types of data: numerical (discrete and continuous), categorical, and ordinal. Data are the. Categorical Data (Nominal, Ordinal) Numerical Data (Discrete, Continuous, Interval, Ratio) Why Data Types are important? Statistical Methods. Understanding Qualitative, Quantitative, Attribute, Discrete, and Continuous Data Types. At the highest level, two kinds of data exist: quantitative and qualitative. There are two types of quantitative data, which is also referred to as numeric data: continuous and discrete.


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Datatypes are an important concept because statistical methods can only be used with certain data types.

Data Types in Statistics

You have to analyze continuous data differently than categorical data otherwise it would result in a wrong analysis. Therefore knowing the types of data you are dealing with, enables you to choose statistics types of data correct method of analysis. We will now go over every data type again but this time in regards to what statistical methods can be applied.

To understand properly what we will now discuss, you have to understand the basics of descriptive statistics. Statistical Methods Nominal Data When you are dealing with nominal data, you collect information through: The Frequency is the rate at which something occurs over a period of time or within statistics types of data dataset.

You can easily calculate the proportion by dividing the frequency by the total number of events. Statistics types of data visualize nominal data you can use a pie chart or a bar chart.

In Data Science, you can use one statistics types of data encoding, to transform nominal data into a numeric feature. The concept of data type is similar to the concept of level of measurementbut more specific: For example, count data require a different distribution e.

Various attempts have been made to produce a taxonomy of levels of measurement.

Definitions, Uses, Data Types, and Levels of Measurement

The statistics types of data Stanley Smith Stevens defined nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Quantitative data[ statistics types of data ] Quantitative data is a numerical measurement expressed not by means of a natural language description, but rather in terms of numbers.

However, not all numbers are continuous and measurable. For example, the social security number is a number, but not something that one can add or subtract.

It would be acceptable to put the responses in the opposite order, but it would have been confusing to list them in alphabetical order: An example of this might be the scale assigned by a movie reviewer.

Other times, when a scale is well defined and the circumstances are right, ordinal data is appropriately, but cautiously treated as interval data. Examples of ordinal data are: Rank in a Race Distance between rank 1 and rank 2 can be far more than between rank 2 statistics types of data rank 3 Measurement Data The most versatile data is measurement data, statistics types of data can be split into interval or ratio, depending on whether ratios of numbers have meaning.

Definitions, Uses, Data Types, and Levels of Measurement

For example temperature is interval data, as it makes no sense to say that 70 degrees is twice as hot as 35 degrees. This ties in with significant figures, and proper rounding of results. I have several major concerns regarding significant digits. There needs to statistics types of data sufficient not to few.

Statistics/Different Types of Data/Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Slide rule accuracy or three significant digits has a long-standing precident in science. We are not doing science here so two may suffice, but rarely one.


There should not be too many significant digits. Generally, more than 5 is probably a joke, especially in the "softer" sciences. Care statistics types of data be taken so that a primary statistics such as variance is not incorrectly derived from a secondary statistic such as standard deviation in such a way that accuracy is lost.

We will discuss this more in textbook Chapter 3.