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In the present study, we used long-term hourly observations from a great number of coastal tide gauges to accurately evaluate tides in these three seas and compare their principal features. In the Black Sea we used sea level series from 23 stations on the Russian, Ukrainian and Georgian coasts.
The maximum length sea breeze series epub deutsch 38 years was at Tuapse northeastern coast ; the mean length of the series was 17 years. In the Caspian Sea observations from 11 stations on the coasts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenia were used, with a maximum duration of 38 years at Makhachkala northwestern coast and a mean length of 11 years.
The series of observations were carefully checked; shifts and spikes were eliminated, short gaps shorter than 1 day were interpolated.
The Franklin Institute | The Franklin Institute Science Museum
Tidal Spectra To examine the spectral properties of sea level oscillations we used a procedure similar to that described by Thomson and Emery To improve the spectral estimates, we applied a Kaiser-Bessel KB spectral window with half-window overlaps prior to the Fourier transform.
The length sea breeze series epub deutsch the window was chosen to be h, yielding DOF degrees of freedom from 22 Aladga to Stockholm.
Six selected spectra two for each sea are shown in Figure 1A. They are divided into two groups: The shape and depths of the sea determines the natural eigen frequencies of the basin.
The stations are indicated in Figure 2.
B High-resolution diurnal and semidiurnal spectra for Stockholm and Kronstadt, the Baltic Sea; main tidal peaks are indicated. E The equilibrium response Rj, i.
The monotonic character of the continuum spectra is interrupted by prominent discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. These particular peaks are of primary interest for the present study. Four major tidal harmonics, are recognizable in most records: Although amplitudes of tidal constituents in isolated seas are small, because these oscillations are regular and deterministic, the respective spectral peaks are well-defined.
In sea breeze series epub deutsch Baltic Sea everywhere, except the central part and the region of the Danish sea breeze series epub deutsch diurnal peaks are predominant; in the Black and Caspian seas the semidiurnal tidal peaks prevail.
Multi-year series of tide gauge observations enabled us to provide the detailed tidal spectroscopy and to resolve individual tidal constituents.
The high-resolution spectra can reveal specific properties of the tidal harmonics, which are unrecognizable in ordinary spectra.
For the present analysis, we selected stations with the longest time series the same as shown in Figure 1A and used the following lengths for the Kaiser-Bessel spectral window: The results are shown in Figures 1B—D.
Even peaks related to some secondary constituents e. What is especially important, these high-resolution spectra allowed us to resolve tidal harmonics from sea breeze series epub deutsch same groups, in particular, P1-S1-K1 and T2-S2-R2-K2.
As a result, we could identify an interesting feature related to the solar harmonic S1. The gravitational input at this frequency is negligible; this harmonic is associated with radiational forcing, i.
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The frequency S1 is located between the frequencies of gravitational harmonics K1 and P1 and it is indistinguishable in the sea breeze series epub deutsch low-resolution spectra Figure 1A.
However, in the high-resolution spectra Figures 1B—D the S1 peak is clearly seen. A substantial difference is evident in the character of diurnal tides in the southern deepest part and other parts of the Caspian Sea.
In particular, at Makhachkala northwestern coast S1 is predominant, but sea breeze series epub deutsch diurnal harmonics K1, O1, and P1 are prominent Figure 1D right ; the ratios between their amplitudes is close to theoretical for the tidal potential e.
The diurnal tidal spectrum at Aladga southern basin is substantially different: A very similar effect was observed by Rabinovich and Medvedev for tidal oscillations in the Curonian Lagoon in the southeastern Baltic Sea: The "Common Knowledge" section now includes a "Series" field.