THE PROSTAGLANDINS: A FAMILY OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE LIPIDS only to have a wide variety of striking pharmacological actions, but also to be present. PROSTAGLANDINS Samir ali albahrany COOH O HO OH PGE2. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology and signaling of the nine known prostaglandin GPCRs and highlight the specific roles that these receptors play.
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Biosynthesis of eicosanoids Prostaglandins pharmacology are found in most tissues and organs. They are produced by almost all nucleated cells.
They are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators that act upon plateletsendotheliumuterine and mast cells. They are synthesized in the prostaglandins pharmacology from the fatty acid arachidonic acid . Arachidonic acid is created prostaglandins pharmacology diacylglycerol via phospholipase-A2then brought to either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway.
The cyclooxygenase pathway produces thromboxane prostaglandins pharmacology, prostacyclin and prostaglandin D, E and F. Alternatively, the lipoxygenase enzyme pathway is active in leukocytes and in macrophages and synthesizes leukotrienes.
Prostaglandins of the E series and their more potent and selective analogues inhibit gastric acid secretion by an action on histamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Aspirin and related antiinflammatory drugs reduce tissue prostaglandins pharmacology of all cyclooxygenase products; their therapeutic effects and side effects parallel the inhibition prostaglandins pharmacology cyclooxygenase.
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Exogenous PGs exhibit prostaglandins pharmacology broad spectrum of effects. PGs of the E series and PGI2 are generated by the endothelium and the vessel wall to maintain the microcirculation and to counteract the vasoconstrictive and proaggregatory actions of thromboxane A2 TXA2.
Exogenous PGs of the E and I series are potent vasodilators in various vascular beds, and result in decreased systemic blood pressure and reflex stimulation of heart rate. Prostaglandins pharmacology and PGI2 increase renal blood flow and provoke diuresis and natriuresis, partly by modulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.