A group of distinguished scientists from eight different countries and three continents overview the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Abstract. Pathogenic bacteria utilise a number of mechanisms to cause disease in human hosts. Bacterial pathogens express a wide range of molecules that. Virulence Factors. Virulence factors help bacteria to (1) invade the host, (2) cause disease, and (3) evade host defenses. Exotoxins: Exotoxins include several types of protein toxins and enzymes produced and/or secreted from pathogenic bacteria.Introduction · Pathogenic Mechanisms · Specific Virulence Factors.
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These structures are known as fimbriae or pili.
Some pili are also involved in cell aggregation, biofilm formation, DNA uptake, phage transduction and gliding motility. Sheets and Joseph W. Geme III Adherence to a biological surface allows bacteria to persist and spread within the host and represents an essential early step in the pathogenesis pathogenicity of bacteria most bacterial diseases.
Bacterial Pathogenesis: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
Bacteria produce a variety of pilus and non-pilus adhesive structures that mediate specific adherence to host tissues. Among non-pilus adhesive structures, most can be classified according to the mechanism of secretion or the mechanism of anchoring to the bacterial surface.
The majority of non-pilus adhesins are proteins, but other structures such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid also have adhesive function. This chapter summarizes the pathogenicity of bacteria of bacterial non-pilus adhesins and highlights the roles of prototype adhesins in the pathogenicity of bacteria of disease pathogenesis.
Elucidation of conserved mechanisms of secretion and anchoring of adhesins may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic agents that combat infectious diseases by effectively disrupting adherence and initial interactions with the host. Bernard, Caroline Giraud, Jennifer Spagnolo, and Sophie de Bentzmann This chapter is dedicated to a particular phase of the bacterial cell cycle known as the biofilm, in which single-celled individuals gather together to form a sedentary but dynamic community with a complex structure, displaying spatial and functional heterogeneity.
In response to the pathogenicity of bacteria of environmental signals by sensing systems, appropriate responses are triggered, leading to biofilm formation.
This process involves various molecular systems described in detail here for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria enabling bacteria to identify appropriate surfaces on which to anchor themselves, to stick to those surfaces and to each other, to construct multicellular communities several hundreds of micrometers thick and to detach from the community.
These pathogenicity of bacteria systems are used antagonistically or synergistically, depending on the microenvironment confronting the bacterium.
The biofilm microbial community is a unique, highly competitive and crowded environment facilitating microevolutionary processes and horizontal gene transfer between distantly related microorganisms.
It pathogenicity of bacteria governed by social rules, based on the production and use of "public" goods, with actors and recipients. Biofilms constitute a unique shield against external aggressions, including drug treatment and immune reactions.
Biofilm-associated infections in humans have therefore generated major pathogenicity of bacteria for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Improvements in our understanding of biofilms have led to innovative research aiming to interfere with the process of biofilm formation.
Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity
Poisoning the Host by Toxins 7. Toxins Damaging Cellular Membranes: Paradigms and Molecular Features Joseph E. Alouf The repertoire of the bacterial cytolytic pore-forming protein toxins PTFs comprises ca.
The pathogenicity of bacteria functional feature of these cytolysins is their capacity to provoke the formation of hydrophilic pores in the cytoplasmic membranes of target eukaryotic cells.
Pathogenic bacteria - Wikipedia
Other pathogenicity of bacteria genes have also recently been identified in Salmonella and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
The mechanisms of invasion of Rickettsia, and Chlamydia species are not well known. Capsules and Other Surface Components Bacteria have evolved numerous structural and metabolic pathogenicity of bacteria factors that enhance their survival rate in the host.
Capsule formation has long been recognized as a protective mechanism for bacteria see Ch.
Encapsulated strains of many bacteria e.