A partially or weakly ionized gas means the plasma is not dominated by Coulomb collisions, i.e. when. Partially ionized gases. Front Cover. Morton Mitchner, Charles H. Kruger. Wiley, - Technology & Engineering - pages. In Partially Ionized Gases the Stanford authors, Mitchner and Kruger, deal with the theory of real plasma properties in a clear and comprehensive manner.
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A plasma with a significant excess of charge density, or, in the extreme case, is composed of a single species, is called a non-neutral plasma.
In such a plasma, electric fields play a dominant role. Examples are charged particle beamsan electron cloud in a Penning trap and positron plasmas.
Partially ionized gases - Morton Mitchner, Charles H. Kruger - Google книги
The dust particles acquire high charges and interact with each other. A plasma that contains larger particles is called grain plasma. Under laboratory conditions, dusty plasmas are also called complex plasmas. While spectroscopic data on partially ionized gases characteristics of plasma were claimed to partially ionized gases difficult to obtain due to the high pressure, the passive effect of plasma on synthesis of different nanostructures clearly suggested the effective confinement.
Partially ionized gases - Ghent University Library
They also showed that upon maintaining the impermeability for a few tens of seconds, screening of ions at the plasma-gas interface could give rise to a strong secondary mode of heating known as viscous heating leading to different kinetics of reactions and formation of complex nanomaterials.
Plasma modeling To completely describe the state of a plasma, all of the particle locations and velocities partially ionized gases describe the electromagnetic field in the plasma region would need to be written down. However, it is generally not practical or necessary to keep track of all the partially ionized gases in a plasma.
Therefore, plasma physicists commonly use less detailed descriptions, of which there are partially ionized gases main types: Fluid model[ edit ] Fluid models describe plasmas in terms of smoothed quantities, like density and averaged velocity around each position see Plasma parameters.
One simple fluid model, magnetohydrodynamicstreats the plasma as a single fluid governed by a combination of Maxwell's equations and the Navier—Stokes equations.
A more general description is the two-fluid plasma picture, where the ions and electrons are described separately. Fluid models are often accurate when collisionality is sufficiently high to keep the plasma velocity distribution close partially ionized gases a Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution.
Because fluid models usually describe the plasma in terms of a single flow at a certain temperature at each spatial location, they can neither capture velocity space structures like beams or double layersnor partially ionized gases wave-particle effects.
Kinetic model[ edit ] Partially ionized gases models describe the particle velocity distribution function at each point in the plasma and therefore do not need to assume a Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution.
A kinetic description is often necessary for collisionless plasmas. This process is called ionization.
Plasma (physics) - Wikipedia
Once a significant portion of the gas has become ionized, the electrical characteristics of the substance dramatically change, and it is then referred to as plasma. Plasma Gas Partially Ionized Gas — Degree of Ionization The degree of ionization is the measure of the proportion of how many atoms in the gas have lost an electron.
If the partially ionized gases ionized gas or "plasma gas" has an extremely low plasma density number of free electrons per unit volume then the substance will still behave like a gas.
In the field of plasma technologymachines called plasma generators create plasma that is usually only partially ionized, but the degree of ionization can be modified to create the desired characteristics.
Since even weak ionized gases behave like plasma, the term "plasma gas" is not really relevant. There is partially ionized gases distinction of what degree of ionization is required in a gas to be referred to as plasma.