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Unicephalic stimulation was used, as outcome measures in motor sequence learning have reported no differences between unicephalic and bicephalic tDCS Hashemirad et al. Moreover, the activity in the brainstem autonomic neurorehabilitacion infantil has not been shown to be modulated by the neurorehabilitacion infantil location of the reference electrode Vandermeeren et al.
Stimulation was delivered at 2 mA Iyer et al. Stimulation was delivered during the complementation of the 3 SEQTAP sessions over 20 min fade-in and fade-out of 30 neurorehabilitacion infantil.
In the sham condition, the stimulation lasted only for the first minute plus a fade-in and fade-out of 30 s. Discomfort neurorehabilitacion infantil monitored using verbal open-ended questions.
A previous pilot experiment was carried out on four participants: Possible side effects or causes of discomfort were neurorehabilitacion infantil. Mild itching was noted in one of four participants in the neurorehabilitacion infantil of the electrode and seemed to be dependent on the volume of saline used.
Therefore, the volume of saline for the sponge was adjusted to neurorehabilitacion infantil ml per session, following Raw et al. Hence, the excess of saline was dried to avoid dripping.
Following session 3, follow-up tests were conducted 20 min and 8 days later 8th neurorehabilitacion infantil follow-up testeach 3 min in duration.
The experiment was conducted on afternoons between Monday and Neurorehabilitacion infantil over 16 weeks. Statistical Analysis In instances were data was normally distributed Shapiro—Wilk test: If data was non-normally distributed, statistical differences were estimated using neurorehabilitacion infantil Kruskal—Wallis and U Mann—Whitney test.
Transcranial direct current stimulation as a motor neurorehabilitation tool: an empirical review.
Effect size r for U Mann-Whitney results was calculated for all the significant results, with the previously mentioned classification.
Results The obtained results are displayed in Table 1. In the baseline test Figure 2Aresults showed significant differences in the SI score between musicians and non-musicians 0. No other significant neurorehabilitacion infantil was found between age or gender and the SI scores of the baseline test, the tDCS sessions, the min follow-up or the 8th day neurorehabilitacion infantil test.
Five neurorehabilitacion infantil 40 participants reported fatigue due to performance of the task neurorehabilitacion infantil at least one test. The perceived neurorehabilitacion infantil during the tDCS stimulation are reported in Table 2.
Shows the number of participants of each group that reported sensations during the stimulation. Discussion The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of three sessions of tDCS over the motor cortex of musicians and non-musicians during the performance of a motor learning task. Performance was also assessed in follow-up tests of 20 min and 8 days.
In the non-musicians, we found an effect of tDCS at the first and second session of stimulation, in the 20 min and in the 8th day follow-up test.
In the musicians, we found no effect of tDCS in any of the tests. Therefore, results show that tDCS may help in the learning and maintenance of newly acquired motor abilities but that the effect is dependent on previous musical training.
It might be possible that previous musical training neurorehabilitacion infantil brain structures Gaser and Schlaug, a ; Hyde et neurorehabilitacion infantil. Therefore, the present results confirm the condition of previous musical training as a suitable human model for studying individual differences among motor processes in healthy subjects Schlaug, This effect was seen in the first and in the second session, pointing toward a higher effect of tDCS at the beginning of the learning process.
Accordingly, Antal et al. The present results support studies in which anodal stimulation strengthens newly formed associations Orban de Xivry and Shadmehr,which seem to be primarily influenced by changes in membrane potential and GABAergic neurotransmission via interneurons of the neuronal network existing at a given time point Nitsche et al.
Previous studies have also suggested that the effects of tDCS are reduced as participants gain expertise, since participants may utilize neurorehabilitacion infantil brain networks after the acquisition of the new task than before Bullard et al.
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Thus, in order to optimize effectiveness in training progress, future studies should neurorehabilitacion infantil tDCS over different brain locations at different times during training.
The results are in accordance with previous reports neurorehabilitacion infantil a role of M1 in the retention of newly acquired motor memories Muellbacher et al.