Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology. Bioinorganic Metal ion transport and storage; Enzymology; Toxicity. Current understanding of the means by which the trace metals copper, iron and zinc are transported and stored in the human body is reviewed. Although. storage and transport is more complete than for any other metal in the group. The transition metals and zinc are among the least abundant metal ions in the sea.
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Others compete with those essential metal ions or have toxic or pharmacological effects. This book is structured around the periodic table and focuses on the control of metal ions in cells. It addresses the molecular aspects of binding, transport and storage that ensure balanced levels of the essential elements.
Organisms have also developed mechanisms to deal with the non-essential metal ions. However, through new uses and metal ion transport and storage processes, organisms are increasingly exposed to changing levels of both essential and non-essential ions in new chemical forms.
They may not have developed defenses against some of these forms such as nanoparticles. Many diseases such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegeneration are associated with metal ion imbalance. There may be a deficiency of the metal ion transport and storage metals, overload of either essential or non-essential metals or perturbation of the overall natural balance.
A complementary metalloprotein to those that react with oxygen is the oxygen evolving complex present in plants.
This system is part of the complex protein machinery that produces oxygen as plants perform photosynthesis. Myoglobin is a prominent subject in bioinorganic chemistry, with particular attention to the iron-heme complex that is anchored to the protein. Bioorganometallic chemistry[ edit ] Bioorganometallic systems feature metal-carbon bonds as structural elements or as intermediates.
Bioorganometallic enzymes and proteins include the hydrogenasesMetal ion transport and storage in nitrogenase, and methylcobalamin.
Metal Ion Transport and Storage
These naturally occurring organometallic compounds. This area is more focused on the utilization of metals by unicellular organisms. Bioorganometallic compounds metal ion transport and storage significant in environmental chemistry. Metals in medicine[ edit ] Main article: Metals in medicine A number of drugs contain metals.
This theme relies on the study of the design and mechanism of action of metal-containing pharmaceuticals, and compounds that interact with endogenous metal ions in enzyme active sites.
The most widely used anti-cancer drug is cisplatin.
MRI contrast agent commonly contain gadolinium. Lithium carbonate has been used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder.
Gold antiarthritic drugs, e. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules are metal complexes have metal ion transport and storage developed to suppress inflammation by releasing small amounts of carbon monoxide.
The cardiovascular and neuronal importance of nitric oxide has been examined, including the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. Besides, metallic transition complexes based on triazolopyrimidines have been tested against several parasite strains.
Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells (RSC Publishing)
Environmental chemistry Environmental chemistry traditionally emphasizes the interaction of heavy metals with organisms. Methylmercury has caused major disaster called Minamata disease. Arsenic poisoning is a widespread problem owing largely to arsenic contamination of groundwaterwhich affects many millions of people in developing countries.
The metabolism of mercury- and arsenic-containing compounds involves cobalamin -based enzymes. Biomineralization Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce mineralsoften to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
Such tissues are called mineralized tissues. Other examples include metal ion transport and storageiron and gold deposits involving bacteria.
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Because extracellular  iron is strongly involved in inducing calcification,   its control is essential in developing shells; the protein ferritin plays an important role in controlling the distribution of iron.