THE MONADOLOGY. by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. translated by Robert Latta. 1. The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance. Jump to Monads and the World of Phenomena - The ultimate expression of Leibniz's view comes in his celebrated theory of monads, in which the only. Jump to Monads and Complete Concepts - In Leibniz's extraordinary phrase, found frequently in his with the past (see, for example, Monadology §22).


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Some of these simple ideas can neither be defined nor demonstrated, because as first principles, they are not based on anything but leibniz monadology is on them that everything else is based: The truths of fact, although contingent, also obey the principle of sufficient reason.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

But the immense variety of things in nature that the analysis could be boundless. This is a necessary substance, God.

So God is achieved by the principle of sufficient reason in the Leibniz monadology of Leibniz. God is the cause of all leibniz monadology, but also species.


Thus, a compound substance may be divided into simple parts. According to Leibniz, monads differ in quality, and no two monads are exactly alike. Each monad has leibniz monadology own individual identity. Each monad has its own internal principle of being.

A leibniz monadology may undergo change, but this change is internally determined.

Changes in the leibniz monadology of any monad are not externally determined by other monads. Each monad has a plurality of properties and relations, which constitutes its perception. Each monad has its own perceptions which differ from the perceptions leibniz monadology other monads.


Perceptual changes are constituted by the internal actions of monads. Leibniz describes three levels of monads, which may be differentiated by their modes of perception A simple or bare monad has unconscious perception, but does not have memory.

Leibniz monadology simple or ordinary soul is a more highly developed monad, which has distinct perceptions, and which has conscious awareness and memory. Moreover, just as for any one predicate, leibniz monadology complete concept contains other predicates which explain that predicate, for any given property of a substance, the complete individual substance will itself be the explanation for that property.

Gottfried Leibniz: Metaphysics

Caesar chose to cross the Rubicon for many complex reasons, but they all boil down to this: Leibniz monadology has much more to say about substance, but he claims that it all follows from this insight. However, the exact relationship Leibniz intended between the logical idea of a complete concept and the metaphysical idea of a substance is still debated in Leibniz scholarship.

Thus, there must be a sufficient reason for why this particular substance, Caesar, exists, rather than some other substance, or nothing at all. What, then, leibniz monadology explains a contingent being such as Caesar?

Possibly other substances, such as his parents, and they in turn are explained by still others? But the entire course of the universe, the total aggregate of substances across space and time, are one and all contingent.

Monadology by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

The totality of contingent things themselves do not sufficiently explain themselves. Here again, the principle of sufficient reason applies. leibniz monadology

Note, however, that this does not assume an origin or beginning in any sense.