Approaches underpinning the properties of laser beam propagation and its application resonators, to the properties of a variety of common optical resonators. A novel optical fiber coupler to whispering gallery mode (WGM) micro-resonators, which allows frequency selective addressing of different. This paper is a review of the theory-of laser beams and resonators. It is meant to be tutorial in nature and useful in scope. No attempt is made to be exhaustive in.


Author: Dr. Malika Gulgowski
Country: Estonia
Language: English
Genre: Education
Published: 27 May 2016
Pages: 31
PDF File Size: 34.53 Mb
ePub File Size: 25.55 Mb
ISBN: 319-7-71595-112-6
Downloads: 27458
Price: Free
Uploader: Dr. Malika Gulgowski


Laser beams and resonators: the s - Semantic Scholar

The resonator design should be made so that changes of the laser beams and resonators lens do not affect too much the mode sizes.

Also, it should have a low sensitivity to thermal aberrations [2] and misalignment [1]. The importance of these factors should not be underestimated; there are cases where two resonators even with equal mode sizes in the gain medium lead to very laser beams and resonators laser performance and are radically different in terms of alignment.

Although it is normally not that difficult to evaluate the properties of a given laser resonator, it can be challenging to find a resonator design which satisfies multiple criteria such as those listed above.

Numerical optimization, using special resonator design softwarecan be the only way to find good solutions, particularly for some mode-locked lasers.

  • CiteSeerX — Laser beams and resonators: The s
  • Laser beams and resonators.
  • Laser Resonators
  • Laser Resonators of Solid-state Lasers
  • Optical cavity

Also, a solid understanding of resonator properties can help considerably when trying to find resonator laser beams and resonators with special combinations of properties, such as large mode areas and short lengths.

For advanced design issues, a great deal of experience is at least as important as a versatile design software.

OSA | Laser Beams and Resonators

Some high-power lasers for example with slab designs are operated with unstable resonatorsallowing a reasonable but typically laser beams and resonators diffraction-limited beam quality to be achieved despite the presence of strong thermal effects in the gain medium.

Due to the high diffraction losses, such laser cavities require relatively high gain. There are various types of monolithic solid-state lasers which have the whole beam path within the laser crystal.

Beam reflections are then typically realized either with dielectric coatings on crystal surfaces, or with total internal reflection.

This prevents amplified spontaneous emission and is important for a good beam quality and high power amplifiers. In wave optics this is expressed by the eigenvalue degeneration of the modes.


Interference of the modes then leads to a displacement. Practical resonators[ edit ] If the optical cavity is not empty e.


Optical elements such as lenses placed in the cavity alter the stability and mode size. In addition, for most gain media, thermal and other inhomogeneities create a variable lensing effect in the medium, which must be considered in the design of the laser resonator. laser beams and resonators

Laser beams and resonators

Practical laser resonators may contain more than two laser beams and resonators three- and four-mirror arrangements are common, producing a "folded cavity". Commonly, a pair of curved mirrors form one or more confocal sections, with the rest of the cavity being laser beams and resonators collimated and using plane mirrors.

The shape of the laser beam depends on the type of resonator: The beam produced by stable, paraxial resonators can be well modeled by a Gaussian beam.

In special cases the beam can be described as a single transverse mode and the spatial properties can be well described by the Gaussian beam, itself.


More generally, this beam may be described as a superposition of transverse modes. Accurate description of such a beam involves expansion over some complete, orthogonal set of functions over two-dimensions such as Hermite polynomials or the Ince polynomials.

TEM00 modes frequencies A laser beams and resonators could resonate if the field is the same after a round trip inside the cavity.

Laser beams and resonators.

In other words, the phase variation along this round trip has to be equal to a multiple of ; The phase laser beams and resonators for a gaussian spherical wave is see the corresponding paragraph where.

The first exponential term is simply the phase shift due to propagation, whereas the second laser beams and resonators is a specificity of Gaussian beams. If is the phase at the abscissa z, we should have: The resonant frequency of TEM00q Gaussian modes in the cavity are consequently replace k by: This expression could be written differently thanks to that is after some calculations: