Box 1 Characteristics of primary health care from Alma Ata declaration . on primary health care, Alma-Ata, USSR, September Geneva: WHO, Missing: declaracion ‎| ‎Must include: ‎declaracion. The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health The Alma-Ata Declaration of emerged as a major milestone of the twentieth century in the field of public health, and it identified primary health ‎Description · ‎Primary health care and · ‎Criticisms of and reactions. Esta definición se enriqueció con lo propuesto en la Declaración de. Alma-Ata, en , en donde se reconoció la salud como “un de- recho humano.


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Such clusters are likely to declaracion alma ata 1978 the integrated management of childhood illnesses; maternal and reproductive health services; clinic and community based management of tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections; management of malaria; management of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, stroke, and cardiovascular disease; mental illness and substance misuse.

Outreach services may focus on individual preventive measures such as immunisation, vitamin A, or oral rehydration declaracion alma ata 1978 or community-wide health promotion such as education on child nutrition or adult diet and exercise.

These services depend substantially on community support and mechanisms for identifying, training, and supporting village or community health workers. A community focused operational research agenda has been neglected in favour of research on individual interventions.

Evaluations of new declaracion alma ata 1978 of organising primary healthcare services in specific settings are required. Such research is complex because it is context specific and dependent on local capacity and commitment.

Translation of the evidence into coherent, operational strategies at district level and below will be an equally big challenge. Affordability remains the over-riding and universal declaracion alma ata 1978.

Declaración de Alma-Ata de by Sebastian Alvarez on Prezi

What services can realistically be provided free at the first point of contact and what mix of financing mechanisms should be promoted to do so? The place of user charges for primary health care remains contested for they have repeatedly been shown to deter those most likely to benefit from preventive activities.

Many countries are piloting schemes that give money or vouchers to increase declaracion alma ata 1978 to particular services such as maternity care.

How can declaracion alma ata 1978 providers be encouraged to deliver centrally determined priorities?

La Atención Primaria de Salud: desafíos para su implementación en América Latina - ScienceDirect

Many places, and particularly sub-Saharan Africa, have crippling shortfalls in human resources, partly as a result of international and internal migration; hence the renewed interest in the possible contribution of community workers.

Ironically, poor countries that emulated training standards in industrialised countries have been most vulnerable to poaching by them. They lack consistent managerial support and have grown accustomed to a norm of inadequate service.

Only high level political commitment and declaracion alma ata 1978 governance and funding will raise the status of primary care and attract suitable workers.


For others, declaracion alma ata 1978 the UK, the rhetoric of Alma Ata was of mostly symbolic importance. Pivotal turning points in the postwar development of general practice—notably the Family Doctor Charter of —were already yielding benefits.

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The UK already boasted some of the best primary medical care in the developed world. British general practice has been one of the main reasons for the relative efficiency of the National Health Service. But moves under the current Labour government to create a market declaracion alma ata 1978 these services threaten to fragment health care and erode the public support that holds declaracion alma ata 1978 NHS together.

Its power resides in linking different sectors and disciplines, integrating different elements of disease management, stressing early prevention, and the maintenance of health.

A patient centred approach—a striking feature of family medicine in northern European countries but barely reflected in the medical curriculums of most developing countries—strives to tailor interventions to individual need.

Is the declaration of Alma Ata still relevant to primary health care?

Health professionals can be supported and rewarded for roles that promote social mobilisation. Support for intersectoral action should come from ministerial level downwards.


Box 2 Essential components of effective primary health care Well trained, multidisciplinary workforce Properly equipped and maintained premises Appropriate technology, including essential drugs Capacity to declaracion alma ata 1978 comprehensive preventive and curative services at community level Institutionalised systems of quality assurance Sound management and governance systems Sustainable funding streams aiming at universal coverage Functional information management and technology Community participation in the planning and evaluation of services provided Collaboration across different sectors—for example, education, agriculture Continuity of care Equitable distribution of resources Health systems are part of the fabric of social and civic life.

The declaration of Alma Ata declaracion alma ata 1978 to entrench the idea of health care as a human right.

Declaration of Alma-Ata, 1978

This anniversary provides a salutary reminder of what we are placing at risk. The origins of primary health care and.


Our focus, however, is concentrated in a journey of the ideas around development, international cooperation and their relationship with the collection of PHC ideas. In the first section, we discuss the principal components, the expectations and the problems of the First Decade of the Development of the United Nations through the s.

Finally, the ideas and constant declaracion alma ata 1978 of these formulations were checked with statements in the official documents from the WHO and in discourses from its director general, Halden Mahler.

As will be seen, the documents from the forums on development and those on international health share a great deal of terms and notions as well as the expectation of change.

declaracion alma ata 1978

In addition, these forums made evident the tension in the last year of the classic period of development after the World War II.