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The dependence of biennial plants on photothermal induction complicates bolting control in cultivated crops in which a large proportion of genetic variation is attributed to additive inheritance Sadeghian and Johansson, Investigation of this process has been focused mainly on understanding contributions from vernalization Schmid, ; Lexander, ; Crosthwaite and Jenkins, ; Sadeghian, ; Hohmann et al.
Breeding targets for the control of bolting and flowering in cultivated beet dansen in de hemel epub deutsch meet the dual, but opposing, needs for high sugar yielding crops and seed production.
The latter requires a short generation time and synchronized flowering. Transgenic approaches are an obvious and convenient option for crop improvement, and are made easier by the hybrid nature of sugar beet, which would allow the use of inducible transgenic targets, enabling bolting and flowering to be activated only in breeding lines.
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Efforts are under way to clone the B-gene locus Gaafar et al. The role of growth hormones has also been investigated Khalil and Reda, ; Elliott et al.
The discovery that GAs could induce flowering in many plant species under otherwise non-inductive conditions Dansen in de hemel epub deutsch, generated much interest among sugar beet breeders, who considered the possibility of accelerating breeding by substituting vernalization with GA application.
However, in non-vernalized sugar beet, exogenous GAs failed to induce any significant bolting or flowering, although they affected cellular growth at the shoot apex Sadeghian et al. In sugar beet, GAs are important for reproductive growth Radley, ; Debenham, ; Sorce et al.
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The mechanism of GA participation in reproductive growth, in sugar beet, remains unclear, despite the early leads from the work of Gaskill Although Gaskill's study was limited by the small number of plants used 12it nevertheless provided the first insight into the positive interaction between vernalization treatment and GA-induced bolting.
Later, a clear link was established between vernalization requirement dansen in de hemel epub deutsch biennial sugar beet and bolting behaviour in response to GAs Margara, This dansen in de hemel epub deutsch also revealed variation in the behaviour of annual types in response to GAs, which was found to have little effect on plants in the Beta section Corollinae, while in the section Patellaris, stem elongation was induced, with GAs being detrimental for flowering.
Magara reported that, in B. It is logical, therefore, to assume that alleles at the B-gene locus widely recognized for its major effects on bolting and vernalization requirement might influence plant responses to the applied GAs.
Here, we begin a systematic analysis of GA function during the reproductive transition by examining the relationship between GA signalling and the B-gene pathway. To achieve this, we determined the effect dansen in de hemel epub deutsch the applied GA4 under conditions that were inductive LDs—16 h light and not inductive SDs—8 h light for bolting and flowering, using plants segregating for the B allele with and without prior vernalization.
The alleles at the B-gene locus were determined by a co-dominant polymerase chain reaction PCR marker. Our objectives were to observe the effects of exogenous GAs, the B allele and vernalization on bolting and subsequent flowering, which, in sugar beet, is generally regarded as always proceeding from bolting.
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Materials and methods Plants F2Bb F2Bb is an F2 population F1 sib-cross segregating for the B allele and developed from an original cross between a biennial female parent plant derived from the sugar beet breeding line CZ Lewellen, and an annual B.
CZ This genotype is a bolting-susceptible biennial line, requiring only 8-week vernalization in controlled environment CE conditions as below to become fully vernalized. This genotype could be fully vernalized within dansen in de hemel epub deutsch weeks outdoors in average daily temperatures of 6.
Annual BB and Bb plants totalling for and for were selected using B-locus markers as detailed later.
These populations were used to characterize the effects of the B allele on the time taken to bolt and the bolting frequency. The last hour was programmed to provide light enriched with far-red irradiation Osram 40 W bulbs.
Plants were vernalized under a non-inductive SD photoperiod to prevent undesired activation of bolting responses during vernalization.