It is the opposite of anaphora, which places the pronoun or pro-verb later than the expression or subject in a sentence. The word “cataphora” is derived from the. Anaphora and Cataphora wuglife: “ Broadly speaking, an anaphor is a word that refers back to a previous word. So, for example, the pronouns in the following. Updated July 06, In English grammar, cataphora is the use of a pronoun or other linguistic unit to refer ahead to another word in a sentence (i.e., the referent). Adjective: cataphoric. Also known as anticipatory anaphora, forward anaphora, cataphoric reference, or forward reference.
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Cataphora - Wikipedia
But in 2they absolutely cannot! Although 1 and 2 can both be said of a situation in which one person is studying hard to take the test for another person, only in cataphora anaphora can both the studier and the person who should be taking cataphora anaphora test can be one in the same.
And then you have 3.
That sentence is just awful. What mechanism could cause this? The mechanism is called a Binding Condition, Binding Principle, or Binding Constraint, dependent on cataphora anaphora side of the bed Chomsky wakes up on.
He's my cataphora anaphora Nick. The examples of cataphora described so far are strict cataphora, because the anaphor is an actual pronoun.
Strict within-sentence cataphora is highly restricted in the sorts of cataphora anaphora it can appear within, generally restricted to a preceding subordinate clause.
More generally, however, any fairly general noun phrase can be considered an anaphor when it co-refers with a cataphora anaphora specific noun phrase i.
Non-strict cataphora of this sort can occur in many contexts, for example: A little girl, Jessica, was playing on the swings. Finding the right gadget was a cataphora anaphora hassle.
I finally settled with a digital camera. The anaphor the right gadget cataphora anaphora with a digital camera. Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically: Here it denotes what would normally be called a reflexive or reciprocal pronoun, such as himself or each other in English, and analogous forms in other languages.
The use of the term anaphor in this cataphora anaphora sense is unique to generative grammar, and in particular, to the traditional binding cataphora anaphora.
In this respect, anaphors reflexive and reciprocal pronouns behave very differently from, for instance, personal pronouns. In the following example a, the anaphoric pronoun they refers to the children who are eating the ice-cream.
Contrastingly, example b has they seeming to refer to the children who are not eating ice-cream: Only a few of the children ate their ice-cream. They ate the strawberry flavor cataphora anaphora. They threw it around the room instead. In complement anaphora cases, however, the anaphor refers to something that is not yet present in the discourse, since the pronoun's referent has not been formerly introduced, including the case of 'everything but' what has been introduced.
The set of ice-cream-eating-children in example b is introduced into the discourse, cataphora anaphora then the pronoun cataphora anaphora refers to the set of non-ice-cream-eating-children, a set which has not been explicitly mentioned.
The various possible referents in cataphora anaphora anaphora are discussed by CorblinKibbleand Nouwen Taking the computational theory of mind view of language, centering theory gives a computational analysis of underlying antecedents. In the theory, there are different types of centers: Forward facing centers[ edit ] A ranked list of discourse entities in an cataphora anaphora.
Backwards facing center[ edit ].