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Raman is actively researching methods to improve graft survival and graft-harvesting procedures for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. He is currently co-coordinating a worldwide study on the long-term efficacy of using the radial artery for bypass surgery.

Use of the Open Field Maze to Measure Locomotor and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice

In addition, he is studying the exclusive use of off-pump arterial grafting, which has been shown to decrease the need for red blood cell transfusion during bypass surgery and reduce the risk of stroke.

Raman has performed nearly heart surgery procedures and more than thoracic operations. His surgical expertise encompasses a wide range of cardiac and thoracic procedures, with arena 13 epub maze skill in complex, high-risk cardiac surgeries.

Texture the floors of the maze for traction during ambulation while maze walls were smooth. Maze quadrants were completely empty for the purpose of this test. In consideration of the rest of this protocol, a single arena 13 epub maze of the maze described above will be utilized to demonstrate the OFM.


Allow the ethanol to evaporate completely prior to testing mice. This may take min between each testing session. Any commercial video tracking camera and software may be used to track the test subject and evaluate results from the open field maze.

It is very important for the end user to understand how to calibrate and run the arena 13 epub maze used for each individual analysis. Perform the testing in a standard lit room capable of containing the maze apparatus and the computer required to run the software.

Suspend the video camera above the maze either by attaching it to the ceiling or by using any elevated support system which allows the camera lens to see the entire maze area Figure 2. As the human administrator of the test, be sure to have enough space in the room to be completely unobservable by the test subjects in the maze so as not to influence behavior of the mice.

The software will take a picture of the scenario without the test subject which will be subtracted from the image taken during the tracking process.

This results in only the movement of the subject being analyzed by the software. A solid arena 13 epub maze field will be shown if the background image is completely removed from the tracking image.

To remedy this situation, simply repeat step 2. After confirming background settings, use the Timing option to configure the way time is controlled during acquisition. Use the newly opened window to enter experimental parameters.

Use of the Open Field Maze to Measure Locomotor and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice

You are now ready to begin the testing procedure. The software package used in this protocol allows the tracking of up to 16 individual mice at one time. For ease of completion and as mentioned above, the protocol discussed here arena 13 epub maze for a single mouse using a single quadrant of the OFM.

For the equipment in use for this protocol, a maximum of 4 individual mice could be tracked using each quadrant of the maze.

If utilizing a multi-enclosure maze, after placing the first subject mouse in its defined quadrant, place the remaining arena 13 epub maze into arena 13 epub maze respective maze quadrant for tracking analysis. For the purposes of this protocol, further instruction will be specific to a single quadrant of the maze.

Bring the mice in their home cages from their housing room into the testing room. Allow the mice to acclimate to the procedure room for a minimum of 30 min prior to starting the test.


Remove a single mouse from the home cage by gently grasping its tail and place the mouse in the middle of the open field maze while concurrently activating the SMART software by single clicking on the Start button to begin tracking mouse movement.

It is normal for the mouse to move immediately to the periphery walls of the maze and the timing of release and tracking capture of the mouse should coincide to record this movement. Allow free and uninterrupted movement of the subject mouse throughout the respective quadrant of the maze for a single 10 min period during which time, the tracking software will record movement Figure 3.

At the end of the test period, pick up the subject arena 13 epub maze gently, removing it from the maze and return it to its home cage. Prior to cleaning the maze, visually count arena 13 epub maze fecal boli pellets present in the maze and manually record the numbers for further analysis.

Remove all fecal pellets and wipe up all spots of urination.