Cells grown in a 3D cell culture can be stem cells, autologous cells, allogenic cells, xenogenic cells, progenitor and multipotent cells. They form multi-layered aggregates called spheroids, showing a tissue-like organization and used in many applications due to their structural proximity to in vivo organ tissue. Parallel research also indicates that traditional 2D cell culture methods may not accurately mimic the 3D in vivo environment in which cancer. 3D Cell Culture is much better at replicating in vivo environment than traditional two-dimensional cultures. Learn about the history of spheroids.


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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Injectable biodegradable hydrogel composites for rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cell and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering.

Fabrication of 3-dimensional cellular constructs via microstereolithography using a simple, three-component, poly ethylene glycol acrylate-based system. Laser-layered microfabrication of spatially patterned 3d cell culture tissue-engineering scaffolds.


Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images. Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography.

Int J Med Robot. Fabrication of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering. 3d cell culture

A Brief History of Spheroids

Porous polycaprolactone scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering fabricated by selective laser sintering. Three-dimensional fiber deposition of cell-laden, viable, patterned constructs for bone tissue printing.


Scaffold design and in 3d cell culture study of osteochondral coculture in a three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone scaffold fabricated by fused deposition modeling.

Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells in computer designed fibrin-polymer-ceramic scaffolds manufactured by fused deposition modeling.

3D Cell Culture: A Review of Current Techniques

Preparation of microspheres by the solvent evaporation technique. Gelatin microparticles aggregates as three-dimensional scaffolding system in cartilage engineering.

Three-dimensional culture of rabbit nucleus pulposus cells in collagen microspheres. Chitosan particles agglomerated scaffolds for cartilage and osteochondral tissue engineering approaches with adipose tissue derived stem cells.

Since almost all 3d cell culture in the in vivo environment are surrounded by other cells 3d cell culture extracellular matrix ECM in a three-dimensional 3D fashion, 2D cell culture does not adequately take into account the natural 3D environment of cells.

As a result, 2D 3d cell culture culture 3d cell culture sometimes provide misleading and nonpredictive data for in vivo responses. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that 3D cell culture systems, in contrast to the 2D culture system, represent more accurately the actual microenvironment where cells reside in tissues.

Polymers are easier to manipulate, offering better and wider possibilities to accurately build a scaffold.

3D cell culture

Other types of scaffold Ceramics nanofibers scaffold As previously mentioned, excluding hydrogels, there are a few other kinds of scaffold that can be found, though the vast majority of them are mostly used as tissue engineering scaffolds. One of the materials, bioglass or bioceramic, is a bioresorbable material that improve the regeneration activity of a nascent tissue [23].

On the other hand, porous metallic scaffolds mostly 3d cell culture of titanium Ti and tantalum Tahave been designed since metals have high compressive strengths and above all excellent fatigue resistance [23]. Non gel Polymer scaffold commonly used are natural polymers 3d cell culture tissue engineering such as collagen, fibrin, alginate, silk, hyaluronic acid, and chitosan.

3D Cell Culture: A Review

These polymers are preferentially employed since they produce monomers that are easily removed by the natural physiological pathway 3d cell culture implanted [23]. Lastly, composites are also used to build scaffolds.

They are made of two or more distinctly different materials ceramics combined with polymers for instance 3d cell culture to takes advantages of both materials properties to meet mechanical and physiological requirements [23].

Fabrication process and microscopic view of a composite scaffold from pubs. Spheroids obtained using this technique are most of time smaller and less resistant [28].

  • 3D cell culture - Wikipedia
  • Spheroids and 3D Cell Culture: A Brief History
  • Introduction

The main scaffold-free 3D 3d cell culture cultures techniques are the forced-floating method, the hanging drop method and the agitation based method. Scaffold free techniques include forced-floating methods that use low adhesion polymer-coated well-plates [29].

Spheroid are generated by filling those well-plates with a cell suspension after centrifugation.